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This is the third in a series of posts about the Civil War in Frederick County, Md.

 

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Confederate General JEB Stuart

 

JEB Stuart’s Hunt for Horses

About a month after the battle of Antietam, Confederate Gen. JEB Stuart crossed back into Maryland with 1,800 soldiers. Their mission from Gen. Robert E. Lee was to capture equipment and horses that the Confederate Army needed. They were also to disrupt communication lines and destroy the C&O Canal or B&O Railroad when possible.

They moved through Washington County, Md., and Franklin County, Pa., taking what they needed and destroying what they couldn’t carry.

Rather than retracing their route through Washington County back into Virginia, Stuart was forced to take a southeastern route from Chambersburg, Pa. Rain had swollen the Potomac River making it impossible to cross at the time so they headed toward Frederick County.

Union Gen. Alfred Pleasonton was on Stuart’s trail. However, some bad intelligence caused Pleasonton a delay that allowed Stuart to get around him and head towards Emmitsburg.

In Emmitsburg, Stuart’s men fought a cavalry battle with members of the 6th Pennsylvania Cavalry who were on their way to Gettysburg.

“It was one of two cavalry battles fought in the streets of Emmitsburg during the war,” said John Miller, historian for South Mountain State Park and the Emmitsburg Area Historical Society’s expert on the Civil War.

Emmitsburg’s citizens welcomed Stuart’s men and gave them fresh bread, buttermilk, and meat. However, the fighting in Emmitsburg had given Union supporters time to warn other nearby towns forcing Stuart to cut short his visit. Fearing a strong Union response, Stuart headed south as quickly as he could.

Sarah Six’s family lived in Mechanictown. Word spread through the region that Confederate soldiers were taking horses and cattle when they found them. If they paid, they paid in Confederate scrip. Sarah’s father, William Six, was so worried about losing his stock that he took his two horses north to Wrightsville, Pa.

In the end, the hunt for horses didn’t yield much for the Confederacy.

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This is the third in a series of posts about the Civil War in Frederick County, Md

 

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The Battle of South Mountain on September 14, 1862.

 

Turning the Tide of the War

The battles at Gettysburg and Antietam have been credited as turning points in the Civil War, but it may have actually been during the Battle of South Mountain when the tides of war shifted toward the Union.

“Tactically, the Maryland campaign for the Confederacy was lost at South Mountain,” said John Miller, historian for South Mountain State Park. “Union morale turned around there. It was the beginning of the end. It showed that Lee could not carry the war on the offensive.”

The Battle of South Mountain in western Frederick County was actually five separate skirmishes at the mountain passes as the Confederate Army tried to hold back the Union Army and keep it from crossing. It was the first major battle that occurred in Maryland in Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee’s campaign that had come through Frederick City days earlier.

The fighting on the mountain lasted from 9 a.m. in the morning to 10 at night when the Confederate forces finally fell back.

“The Confederates really didn’t have much of a chance,” Miller said. “They were caught off guard, but the few Confederates forces left there to hold the passes managed to hold a massive force back for the day.”

That delaying action allowed Lee to stop his northern march through Washington County and pull back to support his troops from South Mountain as they retreated.

Then Union Army followed and the two armies met near Sharpsburg for the bloodiest single day in American history.

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This is the second in a series of posts about the Civil War in Frederick County, Md.

 

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St. Joseph College in Emmitsburg during the Civil War. Courtesy of the Library of Congress.

 

Union and Confederate Armies Trade Places in Emmitsburg

The Daughters of Charity archives hold accounts of the Union Army arriving in Emmitsburg on the evening of June 27, 1863. They camped around St. Joseph’s Academy and the officers used homes in Emmitsburg for quarters.

The army headed north on June 30 when “a sudden order was given to strike tents and march for Gettysburg. In fifteen minutes it was done, and Saint Joseph’s Valley relapsed into quiet. Father Gandolfo came out early to say Mass and unaware of the departure of the Northern Army was halted by some Confederate pickets…”

While the Daughters of Charity showed no favoritism in the war, the same didn’t hold true for the girls who boarded at the academy. Many were from Confederate states and were trapped in a country at war with their home states. As the Union Army prepared to leave, one girl is said to have climbed into the cupola on one of the buildings and signaled to Confederate scouts where the Union troops were and that they were leaving.

Confederate troops slipped into the area behind the advancing Union Army with the Daughters of Charity accounts noting, “The country now changed hands for a little time, and the Southern Grey swept round St. Joseph’s, not in large force, but detachments of cavalry, picket men etc.”

They stayed only hours before they, too, headed north.

John Miller, a historian for South Mountain State Park and the Emmitsburg Area Historical Society’s expert on the Civil War, says the problem is that there is no record of the Confederates in Emmitsburg at that time, though there were a few hours during the early morning of  June 29 when it might have happened. He also says that an army the size of the Union Army could not have moved out in 15 minutes.

Sis. Betty Ann McNeil, former Daughters of Charity archivist, agrees that there are discrepancies in the timeline, but adds that the information comes directly from the accounts of sisters and Father Francis Burlando. These accounts were recorded in 1866, though, so their memories might have mixed up the dates.

Miller does note that on July 5, Confederate Gen. JEB Stuart and his men were acting as a rear guard for the slower-moving wagons leaving Gettysburg. He had been told that the Union troops had moved out of Emmitsburg and came in from the western side of town.

“The Union troops hadn’t left, though,” Miller said. “There was a small skirmish out near where the Emmit House is and Stuart’s men took 70 Union soldiers prisoner.”

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This is the first in a series of posts about the Civil War in Frederick County, Md.

 

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 Confederate troops marching west on East Patrick Street, Frederick, Maryland, September 12, 1862. Courtesy of Wikimedia Commons.

Frederick County, Md., citizens helped split the Union, but they also helped preserve it. As contradictory as that sounds, the Civil War divided Frederick County as much as it did the country. Within its borders, a smaller version of the war played out 150 years ago. Frederick County saw battles fought in and near its towns and reeled in the aftermath of other battles. It saw great military leadership and even greater displays of compassion. Both Union and Confederate troops occupied its towns and families were divided because of where their loyalties lay.

 

“Frederick County was a border county within a border state,” said Chris Haugh with the Tourism Council of Frederick County. Bordered by the Mason-Dixon Line to the north and the Potomac River along the southwestern edge, Frederick County has the traditional border between the North and the South as its northern border and the actual border during the Civil War to the southwest.

The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and the National Road both ran through the county making it an important transportation center during the war as troops and supplies moved through the area.

“Frederick County was important to the Confederacy, too, as this was kind of their thoroughfare to the North,” Haugh said. He points out that the Confederacy had three major campaigns into Maryland and they all had ties to Frederick County.

Before the War

Frederick County’s experience in the Civil War could be said to have begun years before the first shots were fired at Fort Sumter, South Carolina (where some Frederick County citizens were among the Confederate attacking force).

Roger Brooke Taney lived in Frederick City for 22 years practicing law. He moved to Washington to become a U.S. Supreme Court in 1835 and eventually chief justice. That is when case of Dred Scott vs. Sanford came before the court. His court ruled that slaves could not sue in federal court because they were not citizens, the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional and Congress had no right to abolish slavery from its territories. The decision became so controversial that it is frequently listed as one of the causes of the Civil War.

John Brown had a scout in Frederick before his raid on Harpers Ferry in 1859 and Frederick’s Home Brigade was part of the armed response to the raid.

Avoiding Secession

Frederick County’s split sympathies about the war drew a line across the county that was as clear as the one the war drew across the country. It was in this environment that Gov. Thomas Hicks brought the Maryland legislature in the spring of 1861 to vote on whether Maryland would secede from the Union. As divided as Frederick was, Annapolis was a bomb waiting to explode and a secession vote would have lit the fuse.

As the legislature debated the issue in Kemp Hall in Frederick, the federal government began taking steps to ensure that Maryland would not secede. Virginia had already done so and if Maryland followed, the Washington, D.C. the Confederacy would have entirely surrounded the Union capital. Federal troops arrested legislators with Confederate leanings and imprisoned them in Fort McHenry. When the time for the vote came, so many legislators were either afraid or imprisoned that a quorum couldn’t be reached.

“Some of the legislators did not even answer when their names were called. They were in the gallery, but they feared being arrested,” Haugh said.

Hospital City

In the fall of 1861, Union Gen. Nathaniel Banks created a military hospital in Frederick’s Hessian Barracks.

“From an operational standpoint, it was a perfect location,” said George Wunderlich, executive director of the National Museum of Civil War Medicine. “It was near the B&O Railroad so patients could be evacuated if need be. It had clean water and mountain air.”

The hospital was called Union Military Hospital No. 1 and unfortunately, there would be more, many more, in Frederick. Following the Battle of Antietam, Frederick would have 28 hospitals taking over most of the large buildings in the city.

Military Hospital No. 1 could house 900 patients, but it wasn’t until June 1862 that the number of patients began to climb toward that number.

On June 4, 400 Union sick soldiers arrived at the hospital and the medical authorities were not prepared for them. The doctors requested that the Daughters of Charity help care for them. The Daughters of Charity had a reputation as excellent nurses, and Catholic sisters were the only trained nurses in the country at the beginning of the war. More than 300 Daughters of Charity would serve in hospitals, battlefields, military prisons, ambulances and troop transports for both the Union and Confederacy during the war.

By the end of the war, Military Hospital No. 1 would treat more than 40,000 patients.

Antietam

Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee’s first invasion into the north came in September 1862 and his first destination was Frederick City.

“He had been told that he would find plenty of men to sign up and volunteer in Frederick, but they gave him the cold shoulder,” Haugh said.

The Confederate Army occupied Frederick for only a few days, but hosting an army can devastate a town. The additional soldiers and horses overwhelm an area’s ability to support the numbers of people.

It was during this time that 96-year-old Barbara Fritchie defied Confederate Gen. Stonewall Jackson and flew the Union flag while the Confederate Army was marching out of town. Her actions turned her into a folk heroine who was immortalized in a poem by John Greenleaf Whittier.

As the Confederates were leaving, one soldier left behind Lee’s orders issued to the army. A Union soldier found the orders wrapped around a set of cigars.

“How much the lost orders changed the course of the war is debatable,” said Barbara Justice, a national park ranger at Monocacy Battlefield. “Some say most of the orders had already been carried out, but others say that it caused [Union Gen. George] McClellan to speed up his pursuit so that Lee didn’t have as much time as he expected to have to carry out his plan.”

The Union Army caught up with the Confederate Army on South Mountain. Fighting began there and carried over to the Battle of Antietam, the bloodiest single day in American history.

Following Antietam, wounded poured into Frederick. “Imagine a town of 10,000 getting 8,000 wounded in, which almost doubles the population, and those 8,000 men are helpless. They need to be fed and cared for. They and the horses brought in with them create a tremendous amount of additional biomass that pollutes the water. Things disappeared very quickly when an army came through. Financially it must have been devastating for them,” Wunderlich said.

Monocacy

During the summer of 1864, Confederate Gen. Jubal Early came through the county with his army and ransomed Frederick for $200,000. He demanded the ransom in gold or medical supplies or he would burn the city to the ground. City officials managed to pay the ransom and Early continued south intending to capture Washington. A smaller Union force fought Early’s army during the Battle of the Monocacy. The battle delayed Early and allowed Washington’s defenses to be reinforced

“I think it’s very possible they [the Confederate Army] could have captured Washington,” Justice said. Could they have held it? Probably not, but they could have burned it and the capture would have had an effect on the effect on the 1864 Presidential election.”

When the war ended in April 1865, Frederick citizens celebrated the end of three years that had been marked by invading armies and deprivation.

“It was a fascinating time to live in Frederick County, but it must have been scary knowing you were in the path of armies,” Haugh said.

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7277782_f260.jpgPresident Woodrow Wilson turned to conscription as a way to raise an army to fight in World War I. The Selective Service Act of 1917 allowed required all men between 21 and 31 years old to register for the draft, though there were exceptions for dependency, essential occupations, and religious convictions. Local draft boards issued draft calls and determined exemptions. During 1917 and 1918, 24 million men registered and about 3 million of them were drafted into the armed forces. About 3,127 of them were from Franklin County.

Though there was some opposition and fraud, the World War I draft proceeded far more smoothly than the Civil War-era drafts.

One man who didn’t want to fight (at least in the war) was Daniel Kenney of Waynesboro, Pa. When the Franklin County draft board issued a draft call for September 12, 1918, Kenney was in jail.

This registration was the third and final registration call during World War I. The first registration had been on June 5, 1917, to register all eligible men. The second registration on June 5, 1918, was to register men who had turned 21 since the first registration. The September 12 registration was to register all men between 18 and 45 years old because the service age had been extended.

Being in jail was no excuse for getting registered, though. Kenney’s jailer asked him if he needed to register. Kenney said no, he was 49 years old and overage for registering with the draft.

“This was seriously doubted on account of his youthful appearance and Chief Gillan who know Kenney well began an investigation to learn whether this were true,” reported the Waynesboro Daily Record in October 1918.

So the police chief began an investigation into Kenney’s background. Gillan contacted the Hagerstown chief of police to search for Kenney’s marriage certificate, which had occurred in Washington County. The information on the certificate showed that Kenney had been 22 years old when he was married in 1911, which made him 29 years old on September 12, not 49.

Kenney was once again arrested but this time on a federal charge of evading the draft. He was taken to Chambersburg in October where he had a hearing before a United States commissioner and was found guilty.

If he could have held out a little longer Kenney might have gotten away with it. After the armistice was signed on November 11, which ended WWI, selective service organizations were closed. By the end of March 1919, local and district draft boards were closed.

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The prisoners at Stalag 13C are freed.

Charles Pensyl of Biglersville answered a knock on his door on December 1944 and saw a soldier standing in front of him. The man asked to see the Logan children. The five children of Otis Edward Logan were staying with their Aunt Maude and Uncle Charles. Maude Pensyl was Logan’s sister. The army officer told the children that their father was missing in action and believed captured during the first day of the Battle of the Bulge in Europe.

 

Logan was among the millions of Americans who either joined or were drafted into the Armed Forces during World War II. Despite the fact that he was a married father of five children, he entered the U.S. Army on December 1, 1942.

He trained for nine months at Camp Van Dorn in Mississippi and Camp Maxey in Texas before he was shipped overseas to fight as a “mortar gun operator” with the 99th Infantry, 393rd Division, Company B.

The Logan family waited anxiously in the following weeks wondering whether Logan was alive or not. Then on February 17, 1945, Logan’s father, Otis A. Logan, received a card that Logan had written from a German prison camp. He had been captured and was now a prisoner of war.

Logan was sent to Stalag 13C in Hammelburg, Bavaria. The camp had been created in the summer of 1940 when short, wooden barracks were built to house POWs. The first prisoners housed there Belgian and French soldiers captured during the Blitzkrieg of 1940. Serbian, Polish, Italian, British, Russian and American POWs were also eventually housed in the Stalag 13C. Each nationality was housed in separate barracks.

Enlisted men, corporal and below, were required to work while in the camp. They were assigned work groups at nearby farms and factories. After the war, Logan told the Gettysburg Times that the food and treatment he received at the camp were “pretty bad.”

The Red Cross agreed about the camp conditions. A Swiss delegation from the Red Cross reported in March 1945 that prisoners consumed only 1050 calories a day about half of what the average person needs. The average temperature in the barracks was 20 degrees Fahrenheit. Men were sick and malnourished. Morale and discipline were low. “No Red Cross packages had reached the Americans since they started arriving in January. They only reason they didn’t starve was the generosity of the Serbian officers, who shared their packages,” according to the web site, Uncommon Travel Germany.

In 1945 as the Third Reich crumbled, Gen. George Patton sent a tank force to penetrate the German lines and free the prisoners in Stalag 13. “The men of Task Force Baum, as it was called, ran into heavy resistance coming in but they reached the camp on March 24, 1945. The tanks knocked down the fences, but they also started firing at the Serbian officers, mistaking them for Germans,” Uncommon Travel Germany reports.

Things were quickly straightened out and the tanks eventually left with many of the prisoners who were fit to march. “On the way back, the Task Force was ambushed and forced to surrender. Out of the 314 men in the unit, 26 were killed and most of the rest were captured. Most of the POW’s returned to the camp as well,” according to Uncommon Travel Germany.

The 47th U.S. Tank Battalion ultimately liberated the camp for good on April 6, 1945. Logan finally left the camp on April 29.

“At the time of his liberation the prisoners from Stalag 13C were being evacuated to the rear. Yankee tanks took the guard completely by surprise and they laid down their arms without a fight,” the Gettysburg Times reported. “Pfc. Logan said that he had his first decent meal of roast beef, mashed potatoes, peas and gravy after liberation, and that he had no personal belongs when he was freed. All had been taken from his by the Germans.”

Once freed, Logan received a 60-day furlough and returned to Biglerville to reunite with his family in early June 1945.

Because he had also been injured before being taken a prisoner, Logan also received the Purple Heart for his service.

Logan died on March 16, 1986, at the age of 77. He was living on Middle Street in Gettysburg and died at home. His service was held at the Peters Funeral Home and he was buried in the Biglerville Cemetery.

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One of the aircraft spotting stations in Adams County during WWII. This one was located in Biglerville, PA. Gettysburg had one station located on the roof of the First National Bank building in downtown Gettysburg.

Early in the morning of June 22, 1943, air raid sirens blared throughout Adams County. People stumbled out of their beds, tripping in the dark because they couldn’t turn on any lights. Within an hour, it was obvious that the county had bombed.

The county hadn’t been bombed. It had bombed as in “failed.”

“If the surprise air raid test early Tuesday morning had been the real thing the amount of damage done in Adams County would have been terrible,” a member of the County Council of Defense told the Gettysburg Times.

Adams County had been staging air raid drills since the United States had entered World War II, but the U.S. Army had taken over running them in mid-June 1943 and within a week, ran its first drill. The army sent the alert at 4:10 a.m. and the yellow alarm was sounded 15 minutes later. In Gettysburg, the alarm was the undulating sound of the siren on the Gettysburg Fire Hall.

Lights should have been doused and blackout shades drawn all around the county. Instead, people stumbled around in a sleepy daze as the siren became an annoying alarm.

“So realistic was the test, the first sprung by the army, that a number of persons were fearful it was a real raid after they had discovered that the test was in progress,” the Gettysburg Times reported.

The blue alarm was sent at 4:35 a.m., though it didn’t sound until 4:42 because of the volume of telephone calls being made. The only operator on duty at the Gettysburg phone exchange began fielding lots of calls from firemen who wanted to know where the fire was. One of the members of the County Council of Defense said, “The magnificent work of the single operator on duty prevented complete collapse of the local system and allowed the air raid calls to go through.”

The hundreds of air raid wardens throughout the county (Gettysburg alone had 179 wardens and 35 highway entrance police) should have been outside by then walking along their streets to make sure no lights could be seen and people had taken cover. Spotters should have been at their station of the roof of the First National Bank looking for enemy aircraft. That wasn’t the case. Only a small portion had heeded the alarm.

“A number of county communities did not receive the alarms apparently because sleeping wardens did not hear their phones or failed to distinguish their ring on the party lines,” the Gettysburg Times reported.

Early morning defense workers had to dress in the dark and couldn’t leave their homes in time to get to work.

The all-clear alarm finally sounded at 5:02 a.m., less than an hour after the original alarm had been sounded.

People took a deep breath and began assessing what had happened. New Oxford and McSherrystown hadn’t even staged a blackout. When the army took over the air raid drills, the phrasing of how the drill alerts were made was changed. Though it was supposed to be simpler, it turned out to be confusing and so those communities hadn’t even realized that they were in the midst of an air raid drill. The county switched back to using the original phraseology a few weeks later.

In Gettysburg, Texas Hot Weiners, Dr. Bruce N. Wolff and the Sweetland Plaza Restaurant were all fined $5 and court costs for not adhering to blackout conditions.

“The test was the most unsuccessful held so far in regards to performance, but it was the most successful in revealing flaws in the system,” a Defense Council official told the Gettysburg Times.

Another change that was found to be necessary was a new alarm at the fire hall so that the air raid signals wouldn’t be mistaken for a fire alarm. On the east side of Gettysburg, the alarm had been confused with factory whistles, adding to residents’ confusion.

“That the present differentiation is not distinct enough to make everyone understand immediately that is an air raid alarm was proved all too well this morning. If they raid had been real, the result would have been tragic,” the Defense Council official said.

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