869030-R1-32-32_033 On December 8, 1949, residents picked up The Republican to read: “Shallmar Residents Are Near Starvation, Urgent Appeal Made For Food, Clothing and Cash.” It was a front page story under the masthead of the newspaper.

Mine closings and poverty were nothing new to the region, but the fact that it was so bad that children were fainting from lack of food and others not able to attend school because they didn’t have warm clothing was more than anyone with a conscience could handle.

Charles Briner, the Garrett County director of employment security for Maryland, was inundated with telephone calls that spanned the gamut from pleas for him to do something to help Shallmar to accusations that he was killing the miners.

The Oakland American Legion Auxiliary was quick to announce that it was starting a collection of clothes and food.

A Cumberland Evening Times reporter arrived in Shallmar on the day The Republican article came out. He interviewed residents for his own article, which ran the following day.

As Shallmar’s story spread, more and more letters filled Paul’s mail slot at the company store until finally all Paul was getting was a note from the postmaster and store manager, Baxter Kimble, saying to ask him for the mail.

The other person who started getting calls and letters was mine superintendent Howard Marshall. Reporters tracked him down in a Cumberland hospital recovering from minor surgery.

Marshall told reporters that he didn’t know when the mine would reopen. He seemed to have little sympathy for the plight of his miners and their families.

“I ain’t seen anyone starving yet,” Howard told the reporters. His solution was that the county welfare system should take care of them. “They pay enough taxes,” he said.

However, he wasn’t totally unsympathetic. The company wasn’t trying to collect on its house rent or company store accounts. While the rent for the largest houses in town was only $12.60 a month, in some cases, rent hadn’t been paid for over a year.


Help Begins Image (2)

A few days after the Cumberland Evening Times appeared, a large truck rolled into town filled with fresh vegetables, meat packed on ice, canned goods, milk, dresses, pants and shirts. So many people had been calling the newspaper office asking where they could make donations that newspaper collected donations and used a company truck to make the delivery.

Seven-year-old sandy-haired Bob Hartman’s eyes bugged out at all the food. Then he saw a set of new Levi overalls that looked like they would fit someone his size.

He told one of the men, “I’d sure like to have them overalls.”

The truck driver looked at Bob and his threadbare clothes. “We’ll see if we can’t get them for you.”

The man walked away. When he came back a minute later, he had the overalls in his arms and handed them to Bob. He ran home and tried them on, pulling the stiff material over his worn pants and shirt. The overalls weren’t a perfect fit, but it was good enough. He felt warmer without any drafts whipping through the holes in his pants. Though Christmas was still two weeks away, Bob felt like it was already Christmas morning.

It looked like Christmas had come early to the town. Unshaven miners smiled behind their whiskers, mothers and wives laughed as children grabbed at the clothing separated into piles on tables in the union hall. Finding something they liked, many children hurried home to try on the clothes. Others couldn’t wait that long and began pulling on sweaters over their summer shirts and trying on shoes. It was the first time in weeks that some of them had been warm. Each family also got enough food to last them a week.

With the town’s sudden abundance, Andrick called for a community meeting in the school to decide how to distribute the food. He also told the gathered crowd that more would be coming. The townspeople formed the Shallmar Relief Committee with Andrick as the chairman.

Relief efforts for the town got a big boost when CBS broadcaster Edward R. Murrow saw the story on the news wires and told the country about Shallmar on his Dec. 13 broadcast. More reporters, including Murray Kempton from the New York Post, started arriving in town to follow-up on the story of the town on the verge of starvation.

Image (3)Hot meals

By the time The Republican article had come out, the Garrett County Commissioners had already decided to fund a hot lunch program for Shallmar School, a building without a kitchen or cafeteria.

The union hall in the school could be used as the dining hall, but there was no way to prepare the meals. The commissioners weren’t willing to pay for a school expansion and the kitchens in the houses in Shallmar were too small to prepare hot lunches for large groups. The solution was to cook the meals at Kitzmiller School, which was two miles away. The food was then dished out on plates that were covered and driven to Shallmar to be served while they were still hot.

With a plan in place, the commissioners allocated $1,200 to feed the students at Shallmar through the end of the school year. Andrick also allocated money that the town had been receiving to pay for the students’ portion of their lunches.

On Dec. 17, students sat down at two long wooden tables and had their first hot lunch in weeks, if not months.

Originally posted on The Gettysburg Compiler:

by Meg Sutter ’16

For Parts 1 and 2 of this three-part series, see “The Calm Before the Storm: Pennsylvania College in the Antebellum Period.” and “’We will close . . . you know nothing about the lesson anyhow': Pennsylvania College during the War”

The war did not end with the Battle of Gettysburg, of course, and Gettysburg and Pennsylvania College were still impacted after the battle and the end of the war. In November 1863, David Wills, an 1851 graduate of Pennsylvania College, invited President Lincoln to give an address dedicating a National Cemetery to those who had died at Gettysburg giving their “last full measure of devotion.” Dr. William E. Barton in Lincoln at Gettysburg described November 18, 1863 as “Gettysburg’s greatest night . . . John Hay and other gay spirits made a festive night of it. They had an oyster supper at the college, other re-freshments…

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BETTY MAULEBetty Mae Maule was one of 60 students who attended the two-classroom Shallmar School in November 1949. When teaching principal J. Paul Andrick asked Betty Mae to write a problem at the board one day, the 10-year-old girl stood up at her desk and promptly fainted.

Betty Mae and her siblings hadn’t eaten anything all day. Their last meal had been the night before when the eight people in the family shared a couple apples.

This is how bad things had gotten in the little coal town on the North Branch Potomac River. What had once been the jewel of Western Maryland coal towns was dying.

Operating only 36 days in 1948, the Wolf Den Coal Corporation, which owned Shallmar, came into 1949 struggling in vain to stay open. The mine shut down in March, having operating only 12 days that year.

A town starvingImage

Shallmar’s houses had once been considered among the nicest homes for miners in the region. Now they needed a fresh coat of paint and more than a few were boarded up because they were no longer livable or needed.

The Maule family had six children. When Andrick explained to Walter Maule and his wife, Catherine, that he knew their children hadn’t eaten that day, Catherine’s explanation was simple: The mine had closed.

Miners had collected unemployment, but it hadn’t been much because the miners hadn’t worked much in recent years. Even that meager amount had stopped in August.

Albert Males, chairman of the United Mine Workers local relief committee, had then used the union treasury to issue small relief checks of $2 to $7 a week to families. He only had $1,000 to split among four dozen families so it hadn’t lasted long.

The Maules had been eating only apples that the children had found on the ground at a nearby orchard. Those had run out the day before, which is why the family hadn’t eaten that morning. It wasn’t the first time they had gone without breakfast lately either.

“My children have forgotten what milk tastes like,” Catherine later told a reporter for the Cumberland Evening Times. They hadn’t had any meat or milk for four months.

Catherine assured Paul that they had managed to find enough cabbage and potatoes to get them through the next day. She was proud of this because, “We sometimes don’t even have potatoes and cabbage,” she said.

With the mine closed there were no jobs in Shallmar. Only three people in town had cars and families couldn’t afford the move.

Taking action

J. PAUL ANDRICK, PRINCIPAL, SHALLMAR SCHOOLThat night, Andrick started writing letters to anyone he could think of who might be able to help from the board of education to his U.S. senators. He also wrote to the county newspaper, The Oakland Republican hoping to let people know about Shallmar’s plight.

The next morning, Andrick had his wife make extra sandwiches for his lunch. He gave the sandwiches to the students he saw with nothing to eat at lunchtime, according to his son, Jerry. He not only gave the extra sandwiches away but his own lunch as well.

The men in Shallmar had tried to feed their families. They hunted each day, but came home empty handed. Many deer in Western Maryland were dying from a disease in 1949 reducing their numbers. Shallmar hunters only managed to bag four deer. The meat was appreciated, though.

“I never cared much for venison, but it was the first fresh meat in this house for three months,” one woman told a reporter with the Portland Sunday Telegram and Sunday Press Herald.

John Crouse was one of the lucky hunters who bagged a deer in season, but it wasn’t enough to keep his family of six children fed for too long. The Crouse family ate one meal a day and on many days and that meal was potatoes and baked beans.

“It was the first time we had fresh meat in eight months,” John’s wife, Dolly, told the Baltimore Sun.

Last To Fall CoverThe Last to Fall: The 1922 March, Battles, & Deaths of U.S. Marines at Gettysburg is now available for sale online and at stores.

Thomas Williams, executive director of the U.S. Marine Corps Historical Company, said, “Every American is familiar with the iconic battle fought in Gettysburg during the American Civil War, some are even aware that two Marine officers and the ‘Presidents Own’ Marine Band accompanied President Abraham Lincoln to Gettysburg in November 1863 to dedicate the National Cemetery there. However, few people are aware that 59 years later the US Marines would “reenact” the battle.

“In 1922, General Smedley Butler would march over 5,000 Marines from MCB Quantico, Virginia to the hallowed fields of Gettysburg. Conducted as a training exercise, but more importantly to raise public opinion and awareness, the Marines would travel to the National Battlefield and carry out many aspects of the original battle. Ultimately over 100,000 spectators would come to witness this monumental event.

“Authors Jim Rada and Richard Fulton have done an outstanding job of researching and chronicling this little-known story of those Marines in 1922, marking it as a significant moment in Marine Corps history.”

The 178-page book is 8.5 inches by 11 inches and contains more than 160 photographs depicting the march from Quantico to Gettysburg and the simulated battles on the actual Gettysburg battlefield.

“The march involved a quarter of the corps at the time,” co-author Richard D. L. Fulton said. “It was part PR stunt, but it was also an actual training maneuver for the marines.”

James Rada, Fulton, and Cathe Fulton (who served as a research assistant) searched through hundreds documents and photographs looking for the details of the march and battles, but the book was meant to tell a story. For that, they went hunting through lots of newspapers in order to piece together the stories of the marines on the march and the people they met along the way.

“What’s really fun is that the marines re-enacted Pickett’s Charge both historically and with then-modern military equipment,” Rada said.

The event was also marred by tragedy when something happened to one of the bi-planes and it crashed into the battlefield killing the two marines flying it. The pilot, Capt. George Hamilton was a hero of World War I.

President Warren G. Harding and his wife, along with a number of military personnel, politicians, and representatives of foreign governments, stayed in camp on July 1 and 2 with the marines and witnessed some of the maneuvers.

The Last to Fall: The 1922 March, Battles, & Deaths of U.S. Marines at Gettysburg retails for $24.95 and is available at local bookstores, online retailers and ebookstores. You can purchase it from Amazon.com here.


Union encampment at Cumberland, Md., during the Civil War.

Priscilla McKaig held the military order in her hand and re-read it. It was short but it was impossible. Major General David Hunter, who was in command of the Union forces in Allegany County for a portion of the Civil War, was ordering her and her family to leave Cumberland for one of the Confederate States.

“I was thunder struck, no charges – no explanation,” she wrote in her journal.

Why shouldn’t she be? Her family was among the upper class of Cumberland. Her husband was a former mayor of Cumberland, a partner in the Cumberland Cotton Factory and president of the Frostburg Coal Company.

Her first reaction was to refuse to comply. This was her family’s home and she had every right to be here. However, she had no choice but to comply. Troops ringed her house and she and her family had been given 24 hours to leave. She must leave by 7 p.m. on July 12, 1863.

Unable to sleep that night, she and her family began preparing to leave. They sent household items like linens and silver, away for safekeeping with friends. Other things were considered too valuable to leave behind and too dangerous to take with them in case their belongings were searched by Union troops. So all of Priscilla’s letters from her sons and others with Confederate sympathies were burned.

When a soldier called on her in the morning with a pass to get Priscilla and her children through the Union pickets, she once again acted defiant. “I told him that I did not intend to obey that order, that I considered it was a most heartless, cruel order, that it was out of the question for me to think of going. My Husband was absent, my youngest son was away at school, and also my clothes were wet in the tub.”

The soldiers also went to the home of Dr. R.S. McKaig, Priscilla’s brother-in-law. He and his family had also been ordered south. When the doctor said he would not leave because it would ruin him, he was immediately arrested and sent west to a prison the following morning. Another brother and Maryland state senator, Thomas Jefferson McKaig, had been arrested in a similar fashion at the beginning of the war and imprisoned.

Rather than depress Priscilla McKaig, the event actually gave her hope that her order would not be enforced.

However, later that day, another order was received noting that they had half an hour to load a carriage of their choosing or a conveyance out of town would be chosen for them.

Oddly, only Priscilla and her son, Beall, left. Priscilla’s husband William and son, Merwin (though Merwin would join her later), were left behind. Priscilla was accompanied by her sister-in-law, Sarah, and Sarah’s two sons.

The first night away from Cumberland was miserable and Priscilla blamed her family’s woes on the fact that her nephew had joined McNeill’s Rangers against his father’s wishes, despite that fact that she had two sons fighting with the Confederate army. She wrote, “Oh, what a miserable night. I did not sleep an hour, here we heard that all the clothes, money and letter I had sent Tommy were captured. All our troubles were brought on by John McKaig’s imprudence and disobedience to his Father’s instructions.”

The group traveled south to Romney and then to Moorefield, staying with friendly families or paying for rooms in a boarding house. During this time, Priscilla continued to write to her sons, William and Tommy, who were serving.

While staying near Moorefield in August, she saw Gen. John McCausland’s troops surprised and routed by Union forces. “I never wish to witness another such a scene. The Federals captured between three and four hundred men, all the artillery and a large number of horses.”

During their travels they also began to experience the inflation of Confederate currency. At one boarding house, they paid $80 for a night’s lodging, supper and breakfast. Breakfast alone was $16 in one location.

Throughout much of their journeys in the Shenandoah Valley, Priscilla also experienced various ailments from headaches, stomachaches and colic. Sometimes they would keep her in bed all day.

Then in October as winter began to set in, they met Billy McKaig in Moorefield. Since she thought he was supposed to be off fighting, it surprised her. However, what surprised her even more was that her nephew said he had come to get her.

“I could not believe that he had come for that purpose, but supposed that he had returned to join the army. I again said to him, what did you come for Billy? He answered the same way and said pulling a paper out of his pocket, ‘here is the order for your return’ Oh! how thankful I felt to God for his goodness and mercy to me, the carriage was soon surrounded by friends to congratulate me on my good fortune.”

They spent a day packing up their belongings and making sure that all their clothes were clean, then they headed toward Cumberland. They arrived around 5 p.m. the next day.

“Oh how thankful I was, once more to see my home and to meet my dead Husband and my friends,” she wrote.

She could not return to house immediately, as it was serving to house officers. Instead she drove to her husband’s office. At first, she “could see no one for a few moments, the first one who came to meet me was my dear Husband, who was so filled with emotion that he could hardly speak, directly my Sister and others came running down to meet me. I felt very happy and gratified, we went up to her house and remained there all night.”

The McKaigs reclaimed their house next day and things slowly got back to normal. However, they would still run into suspicions throughout the remainder of the war. Once, soldiers searched the house thinking to find one of her Confederate sons at home. As the war wound down, Priscilla’s concerns were only for the safety of her sons rather than the Confederate cause.

She mentions events like the surrender of Richmond, surrender of General Lee and the assassination of Abraham Lincoln in her journal, but only in a sentence or two and without any emotion pro or con. On her way back to Cumberland from a trip to New York, her train met the Lincoln funeral train. It was the type of event most people would get philosophical about. Not Priscilla. For her, as well as the rest of the country, the war was done.


Kitzmiller Bank

The site of the former Kitzmiller Bank as it looked in the 1980s.

Around lunch time on a nice May day, three men walked into Charles Spragne’s restaurant in Kitzmiller. Their faces were blackened with cork and they wore miner’s caps. They were unfamiliar to Charles and his wife, but they were used to seeing new miners in town from time to time.

Spragne’s wife spoke to one of the men, “thinking he was a local miner but did not notice that either of them were masked,” the Republican reported.

The men finished their lunches, paid their bills, and then walked across the street to the First National Bank of Kitzmiller around 11:45 a.m. As they entered, the men drew large revolvers.

One of the men stepped around Cashier Barclay V. Inskeep’s desk and pointed his pistol in Inskeep’s face. Sue R. Laughlin, Inskeep’s assistant, screamed.

A second man pointed his pistol at Laughlin and told her, “If you scream again. I will kill you.”

Laughlin stared at the pistol and then collapsed to floor in a faint.

With one man covering Inskeep, the other two men quickly gathered what money they could find. Then they cut the wires for the long-distance phone and ran out of the bank, weighed down by the money they were carrying. It was later tallied that the robbers took $9,975.25 with them or roughly $185,000 in today’s dollars. One of the men was carrying a bag of nickels, which weighed more than 20 pounds.

In their rush to make their escape, the robbers had not only overlooked $13,000 in paper money that was nearby, but they had also failed to cut the wires for the local telephone at the back of the building.

Inskeep ran out of the bank to the Hamill Coal and Coke Company General Store and reported the robbery. When he ran back outside, he saw the bank robbers starting across the bridge over the Potomac River to Blaine, W.Va. He saw Paul Junkins who was driving a coal company wagon across the bridge to Kitzmiller and called for Junkins to stop the men.

“Junkins climbed from the wagon and told them to stop when one of the men pulled a large revolver from his pocket and commanded him to get back on the wagon and drive on,” the Republican reported.

Junkins had no wish to be shot so he obeyed. When he got to Kitzmiller, he was met by a small posse. Junkins got a pistol from one of the men and then joined them in the hunt. Everyone who could carry gun soon joined in the hunt for the bank robbers, including one man who only had a pick handle.

Meanwhile, Inskeep went back to the back and climbed in his car to drive to Elk Garden, W.Va., hoping to head off the robbers.

The robbers continued on their getaway, walking down the Western Maryland Railway tracks about 200 years and then climbing the bank beside the tracks and heading into the woods. There, they hid among the rocks and fired on the posse as it approached. Junkins who was leading the posse at that point was hit three times—in the arm, the leg, and the forehead. Junkins jumped behind a tree until the robbers stopped firing and fled through the woods again.

The robbers also shot posse member William Schenk in the hand when he stepped from behind a building at the edge of the woods. During the gunfire exchange Constable Sharpless from Kitzmiller believed that he had shot one of the men in the chest. A member of the posse accidentally shot Sharpless when he was mistaken for one of the robbers.

A fourth man wearing a red sweater joined the three robbers and led them off through the woods where he had a car running. The men jumped in the car and traded their miner’s caps for automobile caps. They sped off up to the mountain toward Elk Garden.

By the time the car raced through Elk Garden, witnesses reported seeing only three men in the car. They simply thought the men were joy riding because news of the robbery hadn’t reached the town yet.

Inskeep later told the newspaper, “I do not believe the man who held me up was a professional. Of course I was excited, but believe me, he was trembling all over, too.”

He added that the bank and its depositors’ wouldn’t suffer any loss because the bank carried $15,000 in burglary insurance that would cover the loss.

Four months later, the robbers were finally brought to justice in Woodstock, Va. Paul Neff, Dave Neff, and “Boots” Fry were arrested for different robberies and a group from Kitzmiller, including Inskeep, drove to Woodstock to see if they recognized the men.

“One of the men from the mines identified the Neffs as miners who were at work there until the robbery and then disappeared,” The Republican reported.

Inskeep also identified the men as the bank robbers.

maryshawleaderMary Shaw Leader of Hanover got up early on November 19, 1863, and started off on her walk to work. Hours later, after a cold 15-mile walk, she arrived in Gettysburg to attend the dedication of the Soldiers’ National Cemetery. Since the Battle of Gettysburg in July, the cemetery had been laid out and the remains of the soldiers killed in the battle had been reinterred.

She, along with hundreds of other people, stood through U.S. statesman Edward Everett’s two-hour-long speech and President Abraham Lincoln’s less-than-three-minute speech.

Eyewitness accounts of Lincoln’s speech, which would become known as “The Gettysburg Address”, have said that initial reaction to it was mixed. Historian Shelby Foote has said that applause was “barely polite.” Sarah Cooke Myers, who attended the speech, recalled in 1931, “There was no applause when he stopped speaking.” However, the New York Times article on the speech said Lincoln was interrupted five times by applause.

When Leader returned to Hanover, she prepared her article for the Hanover Spectator, a newspaper owned by her family. Her father, Senary Leader, had started the newspaper in 1844, publishing it until he died in1858. Senary’s wife, Maria, had then taken over as editor while Leader served as a reporter. She was one of Pennsylvania’s first female reporters.

Leader began her article, “On Thursday last, the 19th of November, 1863, was a great day in the history of Pennsylvania and the entire Union. The battlefield of Gettysburg was dedicated with imposing ceremonies in honor of the great victory which decided of the fate of the Nation.”

She included the full text of Lincoln’s speech and called it a “remarkable speech.” Although the country was still engaged in war and would be for two more year, her view of the Battle of Gettysburg turned out to be prophetic as the battle is seen by many as the turning point of the Civil War.

Leader “was the only contemporary newswriter to praise what many consider was the greatest speech ever delivered in the English language,” the Gettysburg Times reported.

While other newspapers (usually Republican) praised the speech, it’s not certain how many of those newspapers had reporters at Gettysburg to hear it firsthand.PICT0075_preview

Leader passed away in Hanover in 1913 while 15 miles away Gettysburg was celebrating the largest gathering of Civil War veterans ever during the 50th anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg.

She was buried in Mt. Olivet Cemetery with a small marker.

William Anthony, a job printer in Hanover, had learned his trade from the Leader family. After Leader’s death, he learned about his small place in history and felt that it should be recognized with more than a small stone. He began a campaign to raise money for a larger memorial that cost $402 (about $9,500 today).
Anthony also arranged a memorial dedication service patterned after the cemetery dedication services in 1863. Around 600 people attended the service on November 10, 1941. Gettysburg College history professor, Dr. Robert Fortenbaugh, delivered the dedication address. Rev. Dr. Harry Hursh Beidleman, pastor at St. Matthew’s Lutheran Church in Hanover, read the Gettysburg Address. The Reformed Emmanuel Church a cappella choir sung a Civil War song and 15-year-old Wirt Crapster, Leader’s grand-nephew unveiled the monument.


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